Brand as 03 main elements namely:
Every brand has a name and a logo to represent their identity and values. As an example the brand “Windows” has a name (which is Windows) and the logo represents its brand name.
Every successful brand has its own colours represented by its logo. As an example Coca Cola has its red and white as colours of their brand and those colours are well represented in their logo to build brand identity.
Kotler (1997) identified several associations of a brand and categorized them in to 06 broad categories.
Attributes- Brand represents the attributes of the product such as Volvo cars for Safety and Apple for innovation.
Benefits- The brands should represent the benefits enjoyed by a user/purchaser by engaging in the purchase. As an example McDonald’s “You Get More for Your Money” represents the value for money and Facebook represents free networking with friends/family round the world.
Values-Brand represents the values the business and creates an image/impression in customer’s mind about the business process of an organization. Virgin Group stands for sense of competitive challenges where as Bodyshop emphasizes on eco friendliness by green production and no product testing on animals.
Culture- Every business organization has their own culture. Brand represents their business culture as well as the culture of their users. With combination of these 02 cultures brand culture is a unique association of a brand which give a competitive edge to the firm. As an example Twitter has a different culture from Facebook even though both brands are known for social networking. Twitter culture encourages technology enthusiasts to share their thoughts with followers within a word limit of 140 words.
Personality- Every brand has a brand personality. Users/customers can choose to like them or dislike them depending on brand values and culture like they like/dislike people based on their personality. As an example people who prefer innovation would like the brand personality of Apple and my dislike the brand personality of Microsoft.
Users- Brand represents the types of the users. Brands a person use will express the attitudes, social status, income and culture of the person. As an example a person who uses a Rolex watch or a Montblanc pen will be considered as a person who has a high income with a high social status.